As we continue on with this four-part series, today we will look closely at the first two phases in this instructional design model.
The first step of the ADDIE model is analysis. During this phase, the instructional designer looks closely at the content and the audience. According to Hodell (2011), there are 7 key elements that need to be considered in this phase. These elements include:
- Identifying the need: What is the reason for this training? Is it an intervention to alleviate a current problem? Is this training a solution to a problem caused by lack of skill or knowledge?
- Finding the root cause: What is the underlying issue causing this problem that requires training?
- Identifying the goals of this training: This includes thinking about the reason for the training existing. Hodell (2011) states this is the “rationale for the project” (pg. 37).
- What information is needed? How will it be gathered?: This step includes looking at subject matter and non-subject matter. Designers look at the population analysis, content mastery, demographics, motivation, attitude, language, culture and technology usage.
- Structure and Organization: During this step, designers do a task analysis. The task analysis includes looking at the job, task, skill and sub-skill.
- Delivery: How will the instruction be delivered? Hodell (2011) gives some instructional examples that include: lecture, role play, case study, drill and gaming.
- Training revisions: When will the training be updated so that it remains up-to-date and accurate?
Analysis is something that I do often in my classroom. When planning lessons, I make sure I keep my students needs in mind. Based on their needs, I can differentiate and modify. For example, during my math lesson on adding fractions. Originally, this was intended to be a two-day lesson. On the first day, I saw that most of my students were understanding this concept really well. At this point, I can use this information to make the decision to move on or to continue with day two but add a challenge to it. I also differentiate based on student needs. This includes providing visuals, shortened tasks, written instructions and preferential seating. Recently, I have been differentiating by adding in class discussions. I find that by letting students talk about their ideas first, there is more participation. This helps my students who do not always answer the question directly. They can take what they have heard through discussion and enhance their written responses. Furthermore, if there is any misunderstanding I have to try to find the root cause and correct that thinking. I find that I use analysis when I am thinking about the skills that I want students to accomplish at the end of the lesson and how I am going to get them there. I have to think about the lesson techniques I want to use and the technology I can incorporate to increase student learning. All of these things, teachers do on a daily basis and sometimes on the fly. Considering these things when lesson planning makes for rich and effective lessons where students learn. When these things are ignored, the results can be detrimental.
Here is some more information on the analysis phase of the ADDIE design model!
In my opinion, the design process is the heart of the ADDIE model. All other phases are impacted by the decisions made during this process. Hodell (2011) states that design is the “anchor for the entire instructional design process” (pg. 105).
During this phase, there is a need for a design plan. The design plan is what explains the training in detail. According to Hodell (2011), the design plan should include a few key elements. These elements include:
- Rationale or a mission statement for the course
- Target population or end-user
- Description of the structure of the course
- Evaluation strategy
- Participant and facilitator prerequisites
- Deliverables (everything delivered as part of the project)
It is important to note that there is no right or wrong combination of elements to put in your design plan. The designer should put in whatever is needed to explain the project fully.
Thinking about design elements make for well-developed and effective lessons. These elements also closely resemble the steps I take when planning lessons for my fourth graders. When planning lessons, I need to consider why I am taking the time to teach this lesson. What are the essential questions that I want my students to be able to answer at the end of the lesson? Objectives are also very important. They serve as a guide to shape my lessons and also evaluate their effectiveness. I am always thinking about evaluation. Evaluation serves as a way for me to see what students have learned and what they are having trouble with. Evaluation also lets me look at the effectiveness of the different techniques I use to teach lessons. Lee (2010) suggests that instructors use many different methods of instruction to try to reach all learners. He further suggests using authentic real life problems and giving students an opportunity for reflection and feedback. Like in the analysis phase, taking these design plan considerations into account when designing has the potential to really increase student learning.
Here is some more information about the design phase of the ADDIE model!
I would like to hear your thoughts about the ADDIE model! Leave your comments below! 🙂
Hodell, C. (2011). Isd from the ground up: A no-nonsense approach to instructional design (3rd ed.). Alexandria, Virginia: ASTD Press.
Lee, J. (2010). Design of blended training for transfer into the workplace. British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(2), 181-198. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2008.00909.x